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Light Bulbs

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What is Light Center Length? (LCL)

The distance between the center of the filament, or arc tube, and a reference plane - usually the bottom of the lamp base. Refer to the following chart for reference plane locations. Base type L.C.L Reference Plane Location All screw bases (except Mini-Can) Bottom of base contact Mini-Can Where diameter of ceramic base insulator is .531 inches 3-Contact Medium Bottom of base contact Mogul Medium Prefocus Top of base fins Mogul Prefocus Top of base fins Medium ...

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What is Specular Reflection?

Reflection from a smooth, shiny surface, as opposed to diffuse reflection.

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Why does a halogen light bulb last longer than a regular incandescent bulb?

Both regular incandescent bulbs and halogen bulbs create light by heating a filament (made of tungsten) inside the bulb; the heat makes the filament white-hot, producing the light that you see. Usually, the bulb burns out when the filament wears out. The filament on a regular incandescent bulb wears out over time because the tungsten on the filament evaporates and is redeposited on the bulb's glass. (This is also why bulbs often appear darker when they burn out; what you're seeing is tungst...

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What is a Compact Fuorescent Lamp (CFL)

This is the general term applied to fluorescent lamps that are single-ended and that have smaller diameter tubes that are bent to form a compact shape. Some CFLs have integral ballasts and medium or candelabra screw bases for easy replacement of incandescent lamps.

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What is light Arc?

ArcAn Arc of light is an intense luminous discharge formed by the passage of electric current in a gaseous medium across a space between electrodes.

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Do some bulbs provide better quality light than others?

Ordinary bulbs produce dingy yellow rays that can leave you and your home looking less-than-best. Fortunately, you don't have to settle for inferior light quality.  Simply ask one of Westside's customer service agents about light bulbs and we'll be more than happy to walk your through process.

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What is Atmosphere in lighting?

Atmosphere refers to the type of gas or vacuum filling a volume or chamber of the lamp. This chamber might contain a filament or it might refer to the bulb which contains the arc tube.

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What is Medium Base?

Usually refers to the screw base typically used in household incandescent lamps. There is also the medium bipin base commonly used in T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps.

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What is a Fluorescent Lamp?

A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through inert gas and low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultraviolet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.

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What is Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) ?

Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH)A type of metal halide lamp that uses a ceramic material for the arc tube instead of glass quartz, resulting in better color rendering (>80 CRI) and improved lumen maintenance.  They deliver excellent color consistency and lamp reliability.

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What are Lumens (watts) ?

Lumens/WattsA ratio expressing the luminous efficacy of a light source. Typical lamp efficacies: Thomas Edison's first lamp - 1.4 lpW Incandescent lamps - 10-40 Halogen incandescent lamps - 20-45 Fluorescent lamps - 35-105 Mercury lamps - 50-60 Metal halide lamps - 60-120 High-pressure sodium lamps - 60-140 Note: The values above for discharge lamps do not include the effect of the ballasts, which must be used with those lamps. Taking ballast losses into account reduces "sy...

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What are the Input Watts used for?

The total power input to the ballast which includes lamp watts and ballast losses. The total power input to the fixture is the input watts to the ballast or ballasts and is the value to be used when calculating cost of energy and air conditioning loads.

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What is the Mercury Lamp?

A high-intensity discharge light source operating at a relatively high pressure (about 1 atmosphere) and temperature in which most of the light is produced by radiation from excited mercury vapor. Phosphor coatings on some lamp types add additional light and improve color rendering.

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What are the Mean Lumens?

The average light output of a lamp over its rated life. Based on the shape of the lumen depreciation curve, for fluorescent and metal halide lamps, mean lumens are measured at 40% of rated lamp life. For mercury, high-pressure sodium and incandescent lamps, mean lumen ratings refer to lumens at 50% of rated lamp life.

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What are the T-12, T-8, and T-5

A designation for the diameter of a tubular bulb in eighths of an inch; T-12 is 12 eighths of an inch, or 11/2 inches; T-8 is 1 inch, and so on.

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What is a Filament?

Metal tungsten wire heated by the passage of electrical current, used to emit light in incandescent lamps. In fluorescent lamps the filament is coated with emission mix and emits electrons when heated.

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What are MR-16 and MR-11's ?

A line of low voltage compact reflector lamps used for accent and spot lighting. The 16 and 11 refer to 16 eighths of an inch diameter and 11 eighths.

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What is the Lighting Industry Federation (LIF) Code ?

For Stage & Studio lamps, these are assigned by the Lighting Federation of London U.K. They ensure electrical and mechanical interchangeability of similarly coded lamps. LIF codes are divided into groups according to the primary application of the lamps.

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What does Cathode mean?

A Cathode is a metal filament that emits electrons in a fluorescent lamp. Negatively charged free electrons emitted by the cathode are attracted to the positive electrode (anode), creating an electric current between the electrodes.

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What is a Dichroic Reflector?

A reflector (or filter) that reflects one region of the spectrum while allowing the other region(s) to pass through. A reflector lamp with a dichroic reflector will have a "cool beam" i.e. most of the heat has been removed from the beam by allowing it to pass through the reflector while the light has been reflected.

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Do you sell Shatter-resistant Bulbs?

Shatter resistant bulbs are most commonly used in restraunt and the food service industry.  If you're looking for a shatter resistant bulb such as the Safe Gaurd from GE, please give us a call.  We do not normally stock these items, but bulk orders can be accomidated for quantities over 100.  They have a coating that helps contain shattered particles if the bulb is broken.

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Light Trespass (spill light)

Light that is not aimed properly or shielded effectively can spill out at into areas that don't want it:  It can be directed towards drivers, pedestrians or neighbors. It is distracting and annoying and can sometimes be disabling.

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What does Illuminance do?

Illuminance is the "density" of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface; i.e. the light level on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux

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What is an Arc Lamp?

An Arc Lamp is a light source containing an arc (see above). Also called a discharge lamp, or an arc discharge lamp.

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What is Color Rendering Index (CRI) ?

Color Rendering is an international system used to rate a lamp's ability to render an objects color. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale) the richer colors generally appear. CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are close in color temperature. CRI differences among lamps are not usually significant (visible to the eye) unless the difference is more than 3-5 points.

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How does the light output of compact fluorescent bulbs compare with incandescent bulbs?

A 13-watt compact fluorescent has comparable light output to a 60-watt incandescent bulb. An 18-watt compact fluorescent has comparable light output to a 75-watt incandescent bulb. Fluorescent bulbs operate cooler, use less energy, and last about 5 times longer.

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Why does it Flicker?

Flickering is the periodic variation in light level caused by AC operation that leads to strobe effects.  In fluroscent lighting this is most common with an old lamp or when the ballast is not an electronic starter ballast.

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What is an Electrode?

What is an Electrode?  Any metal terminal emitting or collecting charged particles, typically inside the chamber of a gas discharge lamp. In a fluorescent lamp, the electrodes are typically metal filaments coated with special powders called emission mix. Negatively charged free electrons emitted by one electrode are attracted to the positive electrode (anode), creating an electric current and arc between electrodes.  This is what starts off the process of the production of light whi...

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What is the Filament Voltage?

Filaments are designed to get to operating temperature when an appropriate voltage is applied, e.g. 120 volts or 12 volts in the case of incandescent lamps or MR16 lamps. In certain fluorescent lamps the filament voltage is the low voltage applied to the cathode to energize it for electron emission.

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What is a light meter use for?

Illuminance MeterA device that measures the illuminance at a location calibrated either in footcandles or in lux. Also know as a light meter

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What is the National Energy Standards for Fluorescent Ballasts?

A federal law enacted in 1988 that sets energy standards for ballasts consistent throughout the United States.

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Candlepower (Mean Spherical)

What does mean spherical Candlepower pertain to?  Initial mean spherical candlepower at the design voltage. Mean spherical candlepower is the generally accepted method of rating the total light output of miniature lamps. To convert this rating to lumens, multiply it by 12.57 (4 pi).

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What is Indirect Lighting?

Indirect Lighting is the method of lighting a space by directing the light from luminaires upwards towards the ceiling. The light scattering across the ceiling produces a soft, diffuse illumination for the entire area.

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What is the Mogul Base?

A screw base used on larger lamps and many HID lamps.

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What is the Coeffeient of Utilation ?

In general lighting calculations, the fraction of initial lamp lumens that reach the work plane is the Co-efficient.  The Co-efficiant is a function of luminaire efficiency, room surface reflectances, and room shape.

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What exactly is Incandescent Lamp?

A light source that generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it.

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What is Luminaire Efficiency?

The ratio of total lumens emitted by a luminaire to those emitted by the lamp or lamps used in that luminaire.

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What exactly is a kilowatt? (kW)

The measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.

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What is Color Rendering Indicator?

Color Rendering IndicatorThe Color Rendering Indicator is a lamp with high color rendering which helps objects and persons illuminated to appear more true to life.

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What is Induciton Lighting?

Gases can be excited directly by radio-frequency or microwaves from a coil that creates induced electromagnetic fields. This is called induction lighting and it differs from a conventional discharge, which uses electrodes to carry current into the arc. Induction lamps have no electrodes inside the chamber and generally, therefore, have longer life than standard lamps.

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What is Lux?

A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. Ten lux approximately equals one footcandle.

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What is Lumen Maintenance?

A measure of how well a lamp maintains its light output over time. It may be expressed numerically or as a graph of light output vs. time.

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What is the European Common Market Regulation?

ECE R37 CodeThe European Common Market Regulation 37 is the standard lamp number usually printed on the glass lens of bulbs manufactured in Europe.European Common Market Regulation 37 standard lamp number as (ECE R 37) or in code.

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What is a 2 pin Two Pin compact fluorescent lamp?

Type of lamps that have the glow bottle starter built into the base of the lamp. Traditionally 2-pin lamps are designed to work with electromagnetic ballasts.

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What exactly is Light?

Radiant energy that can be sensed or seen by the human eye. Visible light is measured in lumens.

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What is the bulb size?

Bulb shape followed by its size (the maximum diameter of the bulb expressed in eighths of an inch). For Compact Fluorescent products, "S", "D", "T", and "Q" are used to represent Single, Double, Triple and Quad sizes. The code also includes a reference such as T4 to represent the size of the tube. Rectangular headlamps are designated as "Rect" and the number of millimeters horizontally.

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What is a Lamp?

The term used to refer to the complete light source package, including the inner parts as well the outer bulb or tube. "Lamp", of course, is also commonly used to refer to a type of small light fixture such as a table lamp.

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What is a Reflector Lamp?

A light source with a built-in reflecting surface. Sometimes, the term is used to refer specifically to blown bulbs like the R and ER lamps; at other times, it includes all reflectorized lamps like PAR and MR.

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What is Kilowatts per hour?

Kilowatt Hour (kWh)The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or one kilowatt-hour. If the utility charges $.10/kWh, then the electricity cost for the 10 hours of operation would be 10 cents (1 x $.10)

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What is a Luminaire?

A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp (or lamps), ballast (or ballasts) as required together with the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps and connect them to the power supply. A luminaire is often referred to as a fixture.

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What is a Halogen Lamp?

A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with a filament that is surrounded by halogen gases, such as iodine or bromine. Halogen gases allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. The halogen participates in a tungsten transport cycle, returning tungsten to the filament and prolonging lamp life.

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What is Luminance?

A measure of "surface brightness" when an observer is looking in the direction of the surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter (or per square foot) and was formerly referred to as "photometric brightness."

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What is Cathode Resistance?

Resistance of the cathode in a Fluorescent lamp is measured "cold" before the lamp is turned on (Rc) or "hot" after the lamp is turned on (Rh). The ratio of the hot resistance to the cold resistance is also measured (Rh/Rc).

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What does Cool White mean?

Cool White is a term loosely used to denote a color temperature of around 4100 K. 

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What does maximum Eccentricity mean?

In High Intensity Discharge lamps the Bulb to Arc Angle is the angle off of center between the electrodes and the bulb. The Bulb to Base Angle is the angle off of center that the bulb is from the base.

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What is the Lens for?

A transparent or semi-transparent element which controls the distribution of light by redirecting individual rays. Luminaires often have lenses in addition to reflectors.

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What is a Quartz Bulb?

A name for fused silica or melted sand from which many high-temperature containers are fashioned in the lighting industry. Quartz looks like glass but can withstand the high temperatures needed to contain high intensity arc discharges.

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What is the filament Design?

Filaments are designated by a letter combination in which C is a coiled wire filament, CC is a coiled wire that is itself wound into a larger coil, and SR is a straight ribbon filament. Numbers represent the type of filament-support arrangement.

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Do bright lights prevent crime?

No. Many studies on this subject have been performed over the years but no scientific study has ever successfully indicated that light alone can prevent crime.  Some studies indicated the nature of crime patterns changed right after lighting was added or increased but then returned to its previous state before the lights were installed.       Criminals recognize patterns and capitalise on this.  Westsidewholesale offers many timers and home lighting systems ...

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What is the correct Mounting Height?

Distance from the bottom of the fixture to either the floor or work plane, depending on usage.

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What does Flood mean?

Flood is used to refer to the beam pattern of a reflector lamp, which disperses the light over a wide beam angle, typically 20 degrees or more. ("Flood" as opposed to "spot")

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Whats the big deal about Input Voltage?

Power supply voltage required for proper operation of fluorescent or HID ballast.

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What is infrared Radiation?

Electromagnetic energy radiated in the wavelength range of about 770 to 1,000,000 nanometers. Energy in this range cannot be seen by the human eye, but can be sensed as heat by the skin.

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What is Color Temperature (Correlated Color Temperature) CCT

The color Temperature is a number indicating the degree of "yellowness" or "blueness" of a white light source. This is measured in kelvins, CCT represents the temperature an incandescent object (like a filament) must reach to mimic the color of the lamp. Yellowish-white ("warm") sources, like incandescent lamps, have lower color temperatures in the 2700K-3000K range; white and bluish-white ("cool") sources, such as cool white (4100K) and natural daylight (6000K), have higher color temperature...

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Do Xenon bulbs last longer?

The xenon bulb will last up to 10 times longer than a standard halogen bulb and even longer compared to the new whiter halogen bulbs. An average life is 2000 hours.

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What are Laminations?

ayers of steel, making up the "core" that is surrounded by the coils in a core & coil ballast.

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What is the actual definition of Dimmable?

Whether or not the lamp lumens can be varied while maintaining reliability.

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What is Monochromatic Light?

Light with only one wavelength (i.e. color) present. 

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What is the Arc Length?

In High Intensity Discharge lamps, and Arc Length is the distance between the electrode tips, which represents the physical length of the electrical discharge.

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What is Instant Start?

Lamp starting method in which lamps are started by high voltage input with no preheating of lamp filaments. Some rapid start lamps are designed so that they may be instant started.  In fluorescents, these lamps will start immediatly and not 'flicker' when you turn them on.

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What is a Daylight Lamp?

A lamp resembling the color of daylight, typically with a color temperature of 5500 K to 6500K

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What is Instant Start Lamp?

A fluorescent lamp, usually with a single pin at each end, approved to operate on instant start ballasts. The lamp is ignited by a high voltage without any filament heating.

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What is the Field Angle?

The angular dimension of the cone of light from reflectorized lamps (such as R and PAR types) encompassing the central part of the beam out to the angle where the intensity is 10% of maximum.

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What is the Center Beam Candlepower? (CBCP)

The center beam candlepower refers to the luminous intensity at the center of the beam of a blown or pressed reflector lamp (such as a PAR lamp). Its measured in candelas.

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What does PAR mean?

PAR is an acronym for parabolic aluminized reflector. A PAR lamp, which may utilize either an incandescent filament, a halogen filament tube or a HID arc tube, is a precision pressed-glass reflector lamp. PAR lamps rely on both the internal reflector and prisms in the lens for control of the light beam.

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What does CFL stand for?

A popular term for a compact fluorescent lamp which includes a built-in ballast (See CFL).

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What is Mesopic?

Typically referring to nighttime outdoor lighting conditions, the region between photopic and scotopic vision.

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